Posts published on July 2010

NPK?

Gardening

N – Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a unique element, as plants are able to take up nitrogen in the form of an anion (a negatively charged molecule) or a cation (a positively charged molecule). Plants are able to take up nitrogen in as NO3 or Nitrates and NH4 Ammonium. Plants require or consume more nitrates than ammonia, thus its not. A well balanced nutrient solution will have less than 10% of available nitrogen in the form of ammonia. Nitrogen has many functions in the plant; it is found in proteins, chlorophyll, protoplasm and plant hormones.Source – All premixed nutrients will have adequate nitrogen levels. If a customer wishes to give his plants extra nitrogen in the vegetative stage then he can use Cal-Mag Plus at a rate of 1-2 teaspoons (5-10ml) per gallon. This will supply the plant with 25 – 50ppm extra nitrogen, this will be more than adequate. Using Cal-Mag will also supply the plant with extra Calcium, Magnesium and Iron. If a customer wishes to use an organic source of nitrogen then they can use Mexican Bat Guano. Note that only 1% of the 10% of nitrogen in Mexican Bat Guano is readily available to the plant, the other 9% will slowly be released over a few weeks as the organic nitrogen is broken down. Bat Guano cannot be used in NFT or aeroponic systems; it will also have a limited affect in ebb and flow and drip systems. Bat Guano is ideal for soil growers.

Deficiency – Growth is slow, sparse and spindly the older leaves turn yellow and will eventually dry out and die. The complete leaf will turn yellow, with no green veins.

Toxicity – The plants will produce excess foliage that will be dark green. The plants will also be softer, disease and insect outbreaks will be severe (this will be due to a weaker softer plant). The root system will also be underdeveloped. High nitrogen levels can also retard flowering and fruiting, decrease in yields as flowers don’t set and lower fruit quality. Nitrogen deficiency and toxicity is rear and will not be a problem if growers use premixed nutrients and follow the directions for these nutrients.

P – Phosphorus

Phosphorus is a very important nutrient for plants. It is required by seedlings, newly rooted clones and flowering and fruiting plants. Phosphorus is essential for the development of healthy roots, stimulation of flowering, ripening of fruits and seed production. Phosphorus is also required for the hydrolysis of starch to sugar and for the synthesis of starch to sugars (also known as energy transfer).

Source – Again, premix nutrients will have adequate phosphorus for general plant growth. Plants will need extra phosphorus when the plants begin flowering and fruiting. This is why growers must change from a vegetative formula to a flowering formula. The flowering formulas will have higher phosphate and potassium levels to help stimulate flowering, fruiting and seed production. This all culminates in higher yields and better tasting produce. Taste is increased because of higher synthesis of starch in to plant sugars. For a customer to really boost their yields of flowering and fruiting crops it is advisable for them to use a blooming enhancer. Bloom Booster, Hydroplex, KoolBloom and Bud XL are all products that will boost phosphorus and potassium levels. Bloom Blaster and Monster Bloom must be applied at a rate of 1 teaspoon (5 grams) per 5 galloons of water. Kool Bloom ¼ teaspoon per gallon or 1¼ teaspoons per 5 gallons of water. PK13/14 must be applied at a rate of 1¼ teaspoons (5ml) per gallon of water. For organic growers, in the soil, Jamaican Bat Guano can be used at a rate of 2-3 (10-15 grams) tablespoons per gallon of water.

Deficiency – Plants are stunted and the leaves turn dark green to purplish color. This is due to a buildup of Anthocyanin pigments. These symptoms occur in the older leaves first. Plant maturity will also be delayed and yields will be low. Seed production is also severely affected.

Toxicity – Phosphorus toxicity is very difficult to diagnose. Excess phosphorus will cause deficiencies of calcium, iron, copper and zinc. This will cause confusing signals as other minerals may be showing signs of deficiencies even when adequate amounts of these minerals are present.

K – Potassium

Potassium is the catalyst in plants. It is important for the manufacture and transport of plant sugars/carbohydrates, increases the chlorophyll in leaves, regulates the opening and closing of the leaf stomata and aids in disease resistance, water uptake and ripening process of fruits. Potassium is also found in the juice of fruits which contributes to an increase of fruit taste and fruit quality.

Sources – The sources of potassium are the same for Phosphorus above.

Deficiency – Symptoms occur in older leaves first with yellow blotches and in severe cases dead spots will occur. Branches and stems will weaken and eventually becomes brittle. Flowering and fruiting is diminished and yields are low and poor in quality.

Toxicity – leaf margins may burn in sever cases, but often it will effect the uptake of magnesium and magnesium deficiencies will occur.

Ca – Calcium

Calcium is as important as N, P and K. Calcium is required in the roots, stems, leaves and fruits of plants. It is found in every cell wall and is required for the absorption of nitrogen.

Sources – Most nutrient solutions will have adequate calcium for general plant growth. If a customer is using RO water then they should consider using Cal-Mag Plus. An application rate of 1-2 (5-10ml) teaspoons per gallon of water is sufficient to rectify any deficiencies.

Deficiency – Flower bud development is retarded, thus reducing yields, fruit size is decreased. Roots die, leaving the plant open to root rot attack. Young leaves show symptoms before older leaves. The leaves can be deformed, and have yellow blotches which later turns into dead spots.

Toxicity – No visual symptoms; may cause magnesium deficiency.

Mg – Magnesium

Magnesium is found in the chlorophyll molecule. If a deficiency of magnesium occurs then magnesium is transported from the lower leaves to the new leaves. Magnesium uptake is affected by the concentration of Potassium. If high levels of potassium are applied then the amount of magnesium should increase e.g. at the second week of flowering when blooming enhancers are used then Cal-Mag Plus should be applied.

Sources – Most nutrient solutions will have adequate amounts of magnesium. If a grower is using RO water then Cal-Mag Plus should be used.

Deficiency – Older leaves, lower half of the plants’ leaves show signs of yellowing. The yellowing occurs between the leaf veins which remains green.

Toxicity – There are visual symptoms for magnesium toxicity.

Si – Silicon

Accumulates mostly in the epidermal cells of a plant. It is also found in other cell walls. Silicon helps creates hardier, heavier and stronger plants. It has also been known to increase the plants resistance to fungal attacks.

Sources – Silica Blast and Pro-Tekt (both potassium silicate) and Pyrosol are the main sources of silicon. Growers should take care when using these products as they will increase the pH of the nutrient solution, thus the grower will need to add pH Down to bring the pH back to 6.

Deficiency – Deficiencies of silicon have been known to reduce yields.

Toxicity – Not known.

Purified Water for My Plants?

Gardening

Walk into any hydroponics shop and you will most likely see that they sell Reverse Osmosis water purification systems.

You may ask yourself why someone would spend money on a water filter to grow plants. Most people give straight tap or hose water to their house and garden plants and they do just fine. But, what about more prized flowers and fruits? What if you only want give your vegetables the best and most pure ingredients? Most importantly, what if you were interested in pushing your plants to the max and achieving explosive growth? Serious gardeners have long realized how important pure water is to the success of their important crops. After all, water is the root of hydroponics and therefore the most important component to a healthy garden. Water acts like a carrier that bathes your root zone with nutrients, additives, and promoters.

If you look at the top nutrient manufacturer’s feed charts, you will notice a common theme. They all require using 0 PPM (parts per million) water as a starting base for the nutrient solution.

Without this ultra pure base, it is much more difficult to dial in the PPM’s of your formula while making sure you have the proper amounts of each component vital to healthy growth. When the feed chart says bring the nutrient solution to 1200 PPM and you are starting with water that is at 500 PPM, what do you do? It is hard to even guess what that 500 PPM is composed of, nonetheless try and adjust for it in the nutrient formula you are trying to perfect.

The first step is to determine how bad your water is and what type of system would be most beneficial to your garden.

Free water reports are available from your municipality or water company, although water quality fluctuates greatly throughout an area and over the seasons. Test kits can be ordered online and are quick and affordable. Some hydroponics shops do water testing and there are many labs that can do an analysis. A key indicator of water quality for plants is total hardness as expressed in PPM of calcium and magnesium or in Grains per Gallon (GPG). With too much hardness, the nutrient formula can be thrown out of balance and deficiencies and lockouts can quickly become a major problem. Any water source over 50 PPM of hardness should be purified. This translates to 3 GPG and is considered soft water, which few people have straight from the tap.

Organic gardeners using compost teas or bio-extraction solutions should use purified water.

Anyone gardening with living micro-organisms such as beneficial bacteria, fungi and nematodes, mycorrizae, and trichoderma, must have chlorine and contaminant free water in order for those helpful microbes to survive and flourish. Unfortunately, it’s rare someone’s water source is perfect for their prized plants.  Letting city water sit out overnight may get rid of some free chlorine but doesn’t affect the chloramines or other contaminants. Water from well or spring sources is often too high in minerals such as calcium, magnesium, sulfur, and iron. This water may be fine to drink but for hydroponics may be too heavy with these minerals and may contribute to nutrient lockup.

Gardeners that start using pure water never go back to untreated water.

There are still plenty of people that haul 5 gallon jugs of water to their garden. They will go through these lengths to pamper their plants and make sure they only get the best. If you do the math, a water purification system from a hydroponics shop pays for itself quickly with the money and energy saved hauling water. There are several customized filtration systems available for gardening and hydroponics on the market.

Following is a table that shows the most common contaminants in your water, their sources, and what harmful affects they can have on plants. After looking it over and realizing how many things can do damage to your crop, you may want to grab yourself, and your plants, a nice glass of pure water!

Contaminant Source Effects on plants
PPM of TDS Well/Spring

Municipal/

City

Water with high PPM of TDS (total dissolved solids) has unknown contaminants that is the key cause of nutrient lockout and deficiencies in plants.
Chlorine Municipal/

City

Biocide that kills beneficial bacteria, fungi and micro-organisms. Any healthy organic or bio-hydro garden is chlorine free. If you are using or brewing compost teas or bio-extract solutions, removing the chlorine is essential.
Chloramines Municipal/

City

Biocide that’s a combination of chlorine and ammonia and is much more stable than chlorine. It will not dissipate by bubbling or even by boiling off. Can only be removed by proper filtration. Toxic to beneficial bacteria, fungi, micro-organisms, fish and amphibians.
Hardness Well/Spring

Municipal/

City

Dissolved calcium and magnesium that forms scale on equipment and tubing. Too much of either of these in your water and you are locking out key nutrients to your plants. Your plants will be unable to feed properly and will exhibit deficiencies.  Pipes and equipment can eventually get clogged and fail. Mineral hardness is the key cause of water problems in hydroponics and other gardening systems.
Fluoride Municipal/

City

A hazardous waste product that is present in all municipal water. This is a toxic substance to humans and plants. Thirty-four enzymes in plants are affected by fluoride as is seed germination. Enzyme additives will not do their job properly with fluoride in the water.
Volatile Organic Compounds Municipal/

City

Some VOC’s are known or suspected carcinogens. Trace amounts of these can end up in the plant’s tissue, flowers, and fruits.
Iron / Sulfur Well/Spring

Municipal/

City

Water containing iron or sulfur may have a metallic taste and an offensive odor. Nutrient lockout, algae growth, and equipment staining can be results of too much iron on the water.
Pesticides/Herbicides Well/Spring

Municipal/

City

Local agricultural areas may be leaching harmful contaminants into the ground water. These can end up in your water supply and in your plants.
Bacteria Well/Spring Local water sources may be affected by animal and human waste. These toxic substances can be found in trace amounts in fruits and flowers and can be harmful to humans.
Nitrates Well/Spring

Municipal/

City

Runoff from agriculture, animal yards, etc. Toxic substances that contribute to over-nitrification and algae growth. Causes “blue baby syndrome”.
PH Well/Spring

Municipal/

City

Water that has either too high or low PH will not allow nutrients to be absorbed properly and can be corrosive to equipment. Adjusting PH may be difficult due to fluctuations in levels.

Guano

Gardening

The 100% Natural Organic Soil Amendment

The word guano originated from the Quichua language of the Inca civilization and means “the droppings of sea birds”. It is a misnomer to refer to bat dung as guano. As the word is used today, guano describes both bat and sea bird manure.

The most famous guano was that used by the Inca.

The guano would collect on the rainless islands and coast of Peru. Atmospheric conditions insured a minimal loss of nutrients. There is very little leaching of valuable material, nor is there a considerable loss of nitrogenous matter. For this the Inca would guard and regulate the treasured soil enricher. Access to the guano deposits were restricted to chosen caretakers. Disrupting the rookeries could result in punishment by death.

Guano became a very important part of the development of agriculture in these United States.

During the peak of the guano era, drastic steps were taken to maintain a supply for the U.S. farmer. “On August 18, 1856, Congress passed an act to authorize protection to be given to citizens of the United States who may discover guano, under which any citizen of the United States was authorized to take possession of and occupy any unclaimed island, rock or key containing guano. The discoverers of such islands were entitled to exclusive rights to the deposits thereon, but the guano could only be removed for the use of the citizens of the United States.

“Nutrients in guano are as different as there are a variety of producers, food sources and environmental constraints.

Sea birds eat strictly small fish and are not scavengers. Bat guano is available from one species that thrives on fruit, while another feasts on insects. Guano can be fresh, semi-fossilized or fossilized and will be a factor, among others, on the nutrient content when used.

Guano is provided in the ready to use condition, thoroughly aged to the vintage state of a good natural fertilizer.

Guano can be used inside or outdoors for all living plants. Guano supplies fast and slow release nutrients to the biological system. Apply the pure guano in smaller amounts than ordinary barnyard or poultry manure. Applied as a top dressing and worked into the soil or mixed with water and applied, guano will have a dramatic influence.

Hydroponic growers, in contrast to normal fertilization, are finding that guano and water are a natural alternative to chemical solutions.

Use nitrogen guano for growth, phosphorus guano for budding and all guano for your plants general health and well being. Guano can be blended with topsoil before laying sod or grass seed and while planting trees and shrubs. Add guano to your container growing mix for a supercharged potting soil.

How can an ocean plant help my garden?

Gardening

How an ocean plant can help your garden?

Oceans contain every natural element known to man.  And while sea water is being experimented with as a irrigation alternative in some parts of the world, dried seaweed applications such as Kelp Meal, are proven growth supplements currently in use with verified results. Kelp Meal is an outstanding organic fertilizer full of minerals and vitamins that plants on terra firma can fully benefit from too.

Kelp, or sea weed, has a cellulose structure that filters sea water and looks for nutrients.

This constant filtration of minerals allows the plant to grow at incredible speeds, sometimes at rates of up to 3 feet a day. This makes kelp an abundant, renewable resource and provides food for many of the creatures found in the sea. And though not every ocean animal eats seaweed, most prey on smaller forms of life that do. This helps form the basis of a food pyramid that extends all the way up to mankind.

Kelp is a 100% natural source of over 70 vitamins and minerals ands can be applied to any soil or plant without worrying about harmful chemicals or waste byproducts.

Kelp Meal is a great way to feed your garden and an ecologically friendly choice for fertilization. Let the bounty of minerals found in the ocean work for you in your garden.

House and Garden Bud- XL

Gardening

House and Garden will change the way you think about nutrients!

Each base nutrient is specifically formulated for the different conditions that exist in growing mediums to ensure that medium and nutrients are used to their full advantage.

Bud-XL has the unique ability to extract sugars from the leaf of the plant and transfer them to the fruit.

The fruit is thus made sweeter and its taste improved. Bud-XL also increases the size and robustness of the flower, resulting in an increase in fruit production and greater turnover.

Bud-XL uses enzyme processes to extract sugars from the large bracts to store them in the fruit or flower of the plant.

This leads to bigger, sweeter and more robust fruits. The flower becomes larger and its color improves.

Directions for use:

Use Bud-XL starting the third week of your flowering phase. Prepare your nutrient container as follows: First add the base nutrient to your container (e.g.: Soil A&B, Coco A&B, Hydro A&B). Adjust the pH-value of the nutrient container. Finall, add Bud-XL.

It is recommended that you start adding Bud-XL to the nutrient solution after the first flowers are formed.

This is the period that the big bract loses its function. By adding Bud-XL you ensure that the plant’s energy is no longer used for keeping the bract, but is directed to forming flowers and fruits. Simultaneously, Bud-XL extracts sugars from the bract and transports them to the flower or fruit.

Advantages of Bud-XL Flowering Stimulator:

* Bud-XL is a very powerful flowering stimulator.

* Bud-XL uses the best nutrient components in the purest form that is available on the market.

* Bud-XL has a constant high quality.

* Bud-XL is packaged in a light-proof packaging to ensure its quality.

* Bud-XL has a sealed lid to guarantee that the product stays fresh.

* Bud-XL is easy to use.

* Bud-XL is very pure ensuring clean piping.

* Bud-XL is highly concentrated and therefore very economical to use.

Nitrozime Marine Algae Extract

Gardening

Nitrozime Marine Algae Extract is a plant nutrient supplement derived exclusively from a natural form of marine algae known as Ascophyllum Nodosum Seaweed.

Cytokinins are natural plant growth hormones and Nitrozime provides plenty of them to plants, assists in all stages of the growth process and helps plants root more quickly.

During the vegetative growth stage, plants produce taller, lusher, stronger growth.

Apply it during fruiting and flowering for more numerous, larger and more fragrant flowers. Nitrozime contains highly concentrated hormones extracted from the North Atlantic sea plant Ascophylum Nodsoum. This plant lives in an environment of extreme stress which causes production of a phenomenal level of hormones.

When added to the nutrient solution or used as a foliar spray, these extra hormone levels greatly increase cell division and elongation, producing greener, more lush plants that translate into higher yields during flower production.

Nitrozime contains powerful natural growth enhancers, micro nutrients and bio-stimulants that will stimulate the growth process of the plant. Use with a saturator to help penetrate waxy leaves.

HOW IS THE CYTOKININ HORMONE LEVEL CONTROLLED?

Nitrozime is produced using the strictest quality control methods possible. The test used to determine hormonal activity is state-of-the-art and approved by government regulators.

FROM WHAT PLANT IS NITROZIME DERIVED?

The plant from which it is extracted is Ascophyllum Nodosum and is found in the Northern Atlantic Ocean and the Norwegian Sea. This plant grows on rocks in sea water, which is as cold as -20oC in the winter and as warm as 32oC in the summer months.

HOW DOES NITROZIME WORK?

Plants progress through a cycle of growth stages. Using the example of wheat, the plant starts out as a seed, germinates, goes through the seedling stage, through the three, five and seven leaf stages, and finally forming a head and producing new seed. When a plant is under stress at any given stage of growth, reduced levels of cytokinin growth hormones are produced. If this reduction occurs at certain key stages of growth such as the tillering stage, yields can be affected. By making available extra hormone to the plant at these stages, you can influence the crops final yield. Timing of the application is essential. If you apply a hormone to a plant, the result will be stimulated growth of the type which the plant is currently undergoing. If the plant is forming roots, more root growth can occur. If tillering is underway, more tillers will be formed. If stem growth is in progress, that is what will occur. If flowering is in progress more flowering will occur.

WHAT ABOUT NITROZIME AS A SEED TREATMENT?

Nitrozime is very effective as a seed treatment. Many gardeners and researchers have been experimenting with Growth Plus as a seed treatment because it contains certain hormones which can help promote early seedling vigor, and up to 40% increase in root mass. More root mass leads to a healthier and a more vigorous plant.

WHY USE NITROZIME?

Crops under normal growing conditions achieve only 30-40% of their genetic potential. Growing conditions such as low or high moisture levels, hot or cold temperature variations, soil imbalance and nutritional deficiencies contribute to plant stress and result in underperformance of the crop. Plants under stress are unable to produce sufficient cytokinins, the natural plant growth hormones which are necessary for plant growth, nutrient mobilization and distribution, germination, cell division, root development, flowering and seed formation. These naturally occurring hormones have a very pronounced effect on the growth of plant cells and regulate delicate physiological plant processes. After many years of research and field testing, the natural cytokinins in Nitrozime can be put to productive use on your plants. Natural cytokinins such as those found in Nitrozime will help control and regulate: germination – root development – nutrition uptake – plant tissue composition – tillering – flowering -seed and fruit set. Nitrozime has been proven to effectively relieve stress, provide a more vigorous and healthy plant, which increases yields and profits.

Got CO2?

Gardening

Elevating carbon dioxide levels can increase growth speed a great deal, perhaps even double it.

It seems that the plant evolved in primordial times when natural CO2 levels were many times what they are today. The plant uses CO2 for photosynthesis to create sugars it uses to build plant tissues. Elevating the CO2 level will increase the plants ability to manufacture these sugars and plant growth rate is enhanced considerably.

CO2 is most usable for flowering, as this is when the plant is most dense and has the hardest time circulating air around its leaves.

If your strictly growing marijuana vegetatively indoors, (transferring your plants outdoors to flower), then CO2 will not be a major concern unless you have a sealed greenhouse, closet or bedroom, and wish to increase yield and decrease flowering time.

The basic CO2 tank system looks like this:

20 lb tank $129

Regulator $159

Timer or controller $10-$125

Fill up $20

For a small closet, one tank could last 2 months, but it depends on how much is released, how often the room is vented, hours of light cycle, room leaks, enrichment levels and dispersion methods.

This method may be overkill for your small closet.

It is generally viewed as good to have a small constant flow of CO2 over the plants at all times the lights are on, dispersed directly over the plants during the time exhaust fans are off.

Opportunities exist to conserve CO2, but this can cost money. When the light is off you don’t need CO2, so during flowering, you will use half as much if you have the CO2 solenoid setup to your light timer. When the fan is on for venting, CO2 is shut off as well. This may be up to half the time the light is on, so this will affect the plants exposure times and amount of gas actually dispensed.

Environmentally, using bottled gas is better, since manufacturing it adds to greenhouse effect, and bottled CO2 is captured as part of the manufacturing process of many materials, and then recycled.

Fermenting, CO2 generators, and baking soda and vinegar methods all generate new CO2 and add to greenhouse effect.

CO2 generation from fermentation and generators is possible. A simple CO2 generator would be a propane heater. This will work well, as long as the gases can be vented to the grow area, and a fan is used to keep the hot CO2 (that will rise) circulating and available below at the plants level. Fire and exhaust venting of the heat are issues as well. A room that must be vented 50% of the time to rid the environment of heat from a lamp and heater will not receive as much CO2 as a room that can be kept unvented for hours at a time. However, CO2 generators are the only way to go for large operations.

Excellofizz is perfect for the grower who has been considering the use of CO2 but has been hesitating due to the high cost factor, or for growers in a small area.

Excellofizz is ideal for small indoor gardens. It allows for a simple and economical way of providing somewhat accurate CO2 to your plants with no equipment needed for dispensing or monitoring, especially in situations where venting is limited. Excellofizz emits the proper CO2 levels for indoor plants by reacting and giving off pure CO2 gas and also absorbing oxygen from the air. Simply place one of the Excellofizz pucks into the container provided. Pour 2-1/2 ounces of water into the container and leave the lid open slightly. Excellofizz will then slowly react, emitting the proper amount of CO2 gas for approximately 8 hours into the photo period. Excellofizz will then continue to increase CO2 levels after the reaction has completely subsided by absorbing oxygen from the air. Excellofizz is also fragrented with eucalyptus which is also known to repel mites and kill airborne bacteria.

Each puck, when reacted, will emit enough CO2 gas in a 10′ x 12′ area to raise the level by approximately 1600ppm. This will give a total of 1900-2200ppm for optimum growth. Many growers with smaller areas will break the pucks into two or more pieces to get more use out of the Excellofizz kit. Each Excellofizz Kit comes with 15 pucks.

The basic CO2 tank system looks like this:

20 lb tank $129

Regulator $159

Timer or controller $10-$125

Fill up $20

Worst case = $395 for CO2 tank setup synced to a exhaust fan with a thermostat.

For a small closet, one tank could last 2 months, but it depends on how much is released, how often the room is vented, hours of light cycle, room leaks, enrichment levels and dispersion methods. This method may be overkill for your small closet.

It is generally viewed as good to have a small constant flow of CO2 over the plants at all times the lights are on, dispersed directly over the plants during the time exhaust fans are off.

Opportunities exist to conserve CO2, but this can cost money. When the light is off you don’t need CO2, so during flowering, you will use half as much if you have the CO2 solenoid setup to your light timer. When the fan is on for venting, CO2 is shut off as well. This may be up to half the time the light is on, so this will affect the plants exposure times and amount of gas actually dispensed.

Environmentally, using bottled gas is better, since manufacturing it adds to greenhouse effect, and bottled CO2 is captured as part of the manufacturing process of many materials, and then recycled. Fermenting, CO2 generators, and baking soda and vinegar methods all generate new CO2 and add to greenhouse effect.

CO2 generation from fermentation and generators is possible. A simple CO2 generator would be a propane heater. This will work well, as long as the gases can be vented to the grow area, and a fan is used to keep the hot CO2 (that will rise) circulating and available below at the plants level. Fire and exhaust venting of the heat are issues as well. A room that must be vented 50% of the time to rid the environment of heat from a lamp and heater will not receive as much CO2 as a room that can be kept unvented for hours at a time. However, CO2 generators are the only way to go for large operations.

As long as the plant has the opportunity to take in new CO2 at all times, from air that is over 200 ppm CO2, the plants will have the required nutrients for photosynthesis. Most closets will need new CO2 coming in every two or three hours, minimum. Most cities will have high concentrations of CO2 in the air, and some growers find CO2 injection unnecessary in these circumstances.

Grow Tents

Gardening

The growing tents at San Diego Hydroponics have all the details covered.

Every feature is designed to make the difference so you can grow healthy, flourishing plants in the safest environments. If you want a hydroponic grow chamber made with the most solid, nontoxic materials, we have it.

Grow Closets in Every Size

Find a grow tent in every size, from one foot across to room size. The GrowLab Horticultural Grow Rooms and Secret Jardin tents we offer are practical and outfitted with the most important features for growing healthy plants.

Add a fan and lighting system and you will have a truly affordable, desirable grow room.

These tents have thick black canvas and highly reflective silver interior. It includes a bracket for supporting exhaust fan and filter.

Organic Fertilizers

Gardening

Naturally occurring organic fertilizers include manure, slurry, worm castings, peat, seaweed, humic acid, brassin and guano.

Sewage sludge use in organic agricultural operations in the U.S. has been extremely limited and rare due to USDA prohibition of the practice due to toxic metal accumulation, among other factors.

Processed organic fertilizers include compost, bloodmeal, bone meal, humic acid, amino acids, brassin and seaweed extracts.

Other examples are natural enzyme digested proteins, fish meal, and feather meal. Decomposing crop residue from prior years is another source of fertility.

Earth Juice Products

The Earth Juice line of liquid organic fertilizers are derived from an array of 100% natural, organic ingredients and formulated for vegetables, ornamentals, shrubs, trees and lawns. Used by professionals and hobbyists worldwide.

Non- burning formulas promote vigorous growth, and provide abundant yields.

They are highly concentrated, easy to use, dust free, and contain no salt-building chemicals or hidden NPK boosting synthetics. Designed for soil and soilless medias and for indoor or outdoor use, these trusted liquid concentrates fulfill the concerned gardener’s need for a convenient alternative that will provide brilliant gardens of thriving plants, naturally. All the Earth Juice products may be used solely or together for custom formulas.

House & Garden Multi Zen

Gardening

House & Garden has formulated Multi Zen specifically to ensure your crop achieves its maximum potential harvest after harvest. In addition to being an aggressive growth stimulant, Multi Zenís unique formulation boosts the plant’s natural immune system, disposes of contaminants within the growing medium, and breaks down nutrients making them more readily available within the root zone.

Derived From: A complete array of vitamins, minerals, and organic compounds.

Ingredients Explained: Multi Zen is easily the most concentrated enzyme product on the market. House & Garden’s superior formulation promotes a healthy and beneficial micro-organism colony, increases flower sites, and thickens stalks for extra durability to support bumper crops.

Application: Administer to nutrient solution from early on in the vegetative stage throughout the third week of flowering.